How ECA solutions helps Oil and Gas production
Anolyte and Catholyte solutions have been used for stimulation and enhancement of oil and gas production and to improve performance of drilling fluids. Anolyte is a highly effective alternative to disinfectants that are non-biodegradable or bio-accumulative. As a disinfectant, anolyte is selective, targeting bacteria responsible for microbial induced corrosion and slime while being safe to humans. Catholyte has been used to replace diesel oil as a cleaning solution for drill bits and tools on site.
These kinds of solutions can be used to enhance production from wells which have been impacted by down-hole growth of bacteria, and other microorganisms, by killing the bacteria and removing the restrictive biomass. Water used for the fracturing of oil and gas wells can be treated to manage bacteria, protecting fracturing fluids and gels, and ensuring polymer and improved performance. Anolyte solutions remove scale and slime build-up from pipes, and cooling water systems can be kept free of biomass, improving heat exchange values and eliminating corrosion caused microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Produced water may be treated before being revised in stimulation fluids or water floods. Recent data collected from field operations where frac water was treated with anolyte, shows that the bacteria levels in the frac water were reduced below the threshold level that would adversely impact stimulation fluids and gels.
Catholyte has been shown to substantially reduce the surface tension of water and can be used to condition water used to stimulate well production. Anolyte has some catholyte properties as well and, being a biocide, is a surfactant itself to some extent. Use of anolyte along with catholyte at the oil rigs results in recovering more oil using low cost and environmentally friendly ingredients. In addition, Anolyte prevents microbial contamination of down hole injection of water during recovery and reduces the need for traditional disinfection chemicals, which can be expensive, highly toxic and potentially hazardous for transport and store.
ECA stands for electrochemical activation and is a technology that has been employed for more than 100 years, although it was not until the 1970s that the physicochemical properties of ECA were extensively researched at the All-Russian Institute for Medical Engineering.
The transformation of low mineral salt solutions into an activated metastable state, by electrochemical unipolar action, generates two separate and distinct compounds, generically termed anolyte and catholyte which correspond to their derivative electrode chambers:
The use of electrolysis for the production of reductant-oxidant solutions is used in the processes of water purification and decontamination, as well as for transforming water or diluted electrolyte solutions into environmentally friendly anti-microbial, washing, extractive and other functionally useful solutions.
This is largely due to ECA high activity, use of cheap raw materials and ease of production.
The system produces a liquid disinfectant, non-toxic and degradable, capable of destroying bacteria, spores, viruses, moulds, yeasts, fungi, biofilms (biological incrustations) on pipes and removing odours. Its operation requires only water, Sodium or Potassium Chloride (salt) and electricity.
HOW ECA WORKS
ECA works the same way as the human immune system. When the body is under attack from invading bacteria and viruses, the immune system immediately responds by sending neutrophils (white blood cells) to the invasion site.
Neutrophils are one of the body’s main defences against bacteria and, once activated, produce large amounts of a mixed oxidant solution which is effective in eliminating invading microbes and pathogens.
This weak acid, which occurs naturally in the human body, is called hypochlorous acid (HClO) and it is a potent disinfectant. It is non-toxic to humans and is highly effective as an antimicrobial agent with rapid action. Hypochlorous acid is widely recognized as one of the most effective known biocides.
In detail, the system consists of an electrolysis cell containing two electrodes, a cathode and an anode, separated by a diaphragmatic membrane. In the cell is injected an aqueous solution consisting of filtered and softened water and, depending on the application, sodium chloride (NaCl, salt) or potassium chloride (KCl). With the use of electricity with predefined and controlled amperage and voltage values, the cell produces an electrically-activated liquid, Anolyte, with high disinfection power that can be used in a variety of applications.
This unipolar electrochemical activation created by potential gradients of millions of volts per cm2 between the anode and cathode terminals, results in the creation of solutions whose pH, Oxidation Reduction Potentials (ORP) and other physicochemical properties, lie outside of the range which can be achieved by conventional chemical means.
CHARACTERISTIC AND ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRO-ACTIVATED SOLUTIONS
Electro-activated solutions produced by the system are respectively:
|Acid Anolyte||Active Cl |
500 / 700 ppm
|2.5 / 5.0||1200 / 1000 mV|
|Neutral Anolyte||Active Cl |
500 / 700 ppm
|6.0 / 8.0||950 / 850 mV|
|Catolyte||Sodium hydroxide |
|10.0 / 12.0||-800 / -900 mV|
As presented in several scientific publications, multicellular organisms, including humans and hot blood mammals, to defend themselves against pathogens and foreign microorganisms are able to synthesize, through metabolism, complex mixtures of metastable oxidizing compounds.
These compounds possess a wide spectrum of action and are capable of damaging all major systemic groups of pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, moulds, spores, etc.) without damaging multicellular organisms and human tissues.
The oxidizing liquids and their chemical production mechanisms are similar to those generated in our ECA system and are precisely these common characteristics that give Anolyte a high biocompatibility with human tissues and multicellular organisms besides not being toxic to the environment.
Anolyte has the following advantages:
Anolyte and Catholyte also have the following characteristics: