Contamination: Risks to Passengers, Staff, and Drivers in Transportation Settings
Contamination in different transportation settings poses significant health dangers to passengers, operational staff, and drivers. Transportation creates an environment in which there is a rich source of dangerous pathogens, micro-bacterial activity and causes of cross-infection as well as pollutants that cause illness and trigger upper respiratory (and other) illnesses:
- Passengers on public transportation are at significant individual risk of acquiring acute respiratory infection/s.
- Passengers and workers on buses, trains, taxis etc are often exposed to unhealthy levels of CO2 concentration that are far in excess of national air quality standards, and they are often exposed to unacceptable concentrations of particulate matters when their mode of transport stops at a station, bus-stop, etc
- Influenza, SARS and MERS, staphylococcal bacteria (s. aureus), and norovirus all create health risks to which passengers and transportation workers are exposed on air, sea, and ground transportation
- Public ground, sea, and air transportation are recognized as places where there is a strong possibility of the transmission of respiratory infections (S. pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Drivers and passengers in cars (either privately owned and operated or operated as taxis) are exposed to volatile organic compounds associated with microbial growth in car's air conditioning systems
The transmission of infectious agents in the transportation mode can occur:
- By direct contact with contaminated surfaces such as handrails, seats, and other internal surfaces.
- By indirect contact through the contaminated hands or unhygienic practices of co passengers.
- By inter-human transmission contaminating the air during the journey
How to Manage Contamination in the Transportation Settings
Eliminate contamination and reduce the risk of contamination through bacteria, viruses, spores, yeasts, fungi, and molds.
Reduce the risks of contamination to passengers, staff, and drivers.
Use an approach to disinfection that is:
- Βroad spectrum in its action: bactericidal, virucidal, sporicidal, and fungicidal, environmentally friendly,
- Compatible with most materials found in transportation settings,
- Efficient and cost effective, saving transportation operators and owners time and labour in their disinfection routine.
Why ECA Solutions?
- Efficient (researched, developed, innovated, and validated by scientific tests and data).
- A full spectrum of disinfection activity.
- Easy to use and not dangerous to users when used according to instructions
- No residue effect
- Their production only develops water, hydrogen and oxygen
ECA stands for electrochemical activation and is a technology that has been employed for more than 100 years, although it was not until the 1970s that the physicochemical properties of ECA were extensively researched at the All-Russian Institute for Medical Engineering.
The transformation of low mineral salt solutions into an activated metastable state, by electrochemical unipolar action, generates two separate and distinct compounds, generically termed anolyte and catholyte which correspond to their derivative electrode chambers:
- The anodic (positive charge) solution contains a variety of oxidants, including hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, peroxide anion, superoxide, ozone, monoatomic oxygen and free radicals, known to possess antimicrobial properties
- The cathodic (negative charge) solution develops detergent properties, contains sodium hydroxide in a highly excited state
The use of electrolysis for the production of reductant-oxidant solutions is used in the processes of water purification and decontamination, as well as for transforming water or diluted electrolyte solutions into environmentally friendly anti-microbial, washing, extractive and other functionally useful solutions.
This is largely due to ECA high activity, use of cheap raw materials and ease of production.
The system produces a liquid disinfectant, non-toxic and degradable, capable of destroying bacteria, spores, viruses, moulds, yeasts, fungi, biofilms (biological incrustations) on pipes and removing odours. Its operation requires only water, Sodium or Potassium Chloride (salt) and electricity.
HOW ECA WORKS
ECA works the same way as the human immune system. When the body is under attack from invading bacteria and viruses, the immune system immediately responds by sending neutrophils (white blood cells) to the invasion site.
Neutrophils are one of the body’s main defences against bacteria and, once activated, produce large amounts of a mixed oxidant solution which is effective in eliminating invading microbes and pathogens.
This weak acid, which occurs naturally in the human body, is called hypochlorous acid (HClO) and it is a potent disinfectant. It is non-toxic to humans and is highly effective as an antimicrobial agent with rapid action. Hypochlorous acid is widely recognized as one of the most effective known biocides.
In detail, the system consists of an electrolysis cell containing two electrodes, a cathode and an anode, separated by a diaphragmatic membrane. In the cell is injected an aqueous solution consisting of filtered and softened water and, depending on the application, sodium chloride (NaCl, salt) or potassium chloride (KCl). With the use of electricity with predefined and controlled amperage and voltage values, the cell produces an electrically-activated liquid, Anolyte, with high disinfection power that can be used in a variety of applications.
This unipolar electrochemical activation created by potential gradients of millions of volts per cm2 between the anode and cathode terminals, results in the creation of solutions whose pH, Oxidation Reduction Potentials (ORP) and other physicochemical properties, lie outside of the range which can be achieved by conventional chemical means.
CHARACTERISTIC AND ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRO-ACTIVATED SOLUTIONS
Electro-activated solutions produced by the system are respectively:
- Acid Anolyte is a very strong oxidizing and disinfecting agent and can be used wherever there are no constraints on the pH value (in the absence of corrosion hazards). Acid Anolyte acts extremely quickly and effectively against all bacteria, viruses, spores, moulds, fungi and algae, even if diluted in water or nebulized.
- Neutral Anolyte is used wherever a neutral pH (corrosion risk) is needed. Neutral Anolyte is extremely effective against a wide range of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, spores, moulds and fungi.
- Catolyte is a powerful reducing agent, it is alkaline and is an excellent detergent liquid that can also be used in flocculation and precipitation of heavy metals. It can also be used in applications where pH correction is required.
|Acid Anolyte ||Active Cl |
500 / 700 ppm
|2.5 / 5.0 ||1200 / 1000 mV |
|Neutral Anolyte ||Active Cl |
500 / 700 ppm
|6.0 / 8.0 ||950 / 850 mV |
|Catolyte ||Sodium hydroxide |
|10.0 / 12.0 ||-800 / -900 mV |
As presented in several scientific publications, multicellular organisms, including humans and hot blood mammals, to defend themselves against pathogens and foreign microorganisms are able to synthesize, through metabolism, complex mixtures of metastable oxidizing compounds.
These compounds possess a wide spectrum of action and are capable of damaging all major systemic groups of pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, moulds, spores, etc.) without damaging multicellular organisms and human tissues.
The oxidizing liquids and their chemical production mechanisms are similar to those generated in our ECA system and are precisely these common characteristics that give Anolyte a high biocompatibility with human tissues and multicellular organisms besides not being toxic to the environment.
Anolyte has the following advantages:
- It has a high ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) value of between 850 and 1200 mV, obtained thanks to the numerous oxidizing compounds present in large quantities but each with low concentration; this peculiarity allows Anolyte to have much greater efficacy than chloramines, sodium hypochlorite and most other disinfectant and sterilizing agents.
- It is a powerful biocidal product that kills pathogenic, viral and fungal microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella Pneumophila, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bacillus Cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, Hepatitis B virus, virus Poliovirus, HIV, Adenovirus, Norovirus, pathogenic Tuberculosis, Dermatomycoses and other).
- Thanks to the mixture of various metastable active ingredients of which it is composed, Anolyte eliminates the ability to adapt the microorganisms to its bactericidal effect, thus not allowing the developing resistance.
- Has a low concentration of active oxygen and chlorine compounds, which guarantees absolute safety and non-toxicity to humans and animals, even after prolonged use of the Anolyte.
- Can be applied in the liquid form, ice or aerosol (mist), in pure or diluted form.
- Contrary to other disinfectants, it can be used as a multifunctional solution at all levels of disinfection, both as a detergent and as a sterilizer at the same time.
- Degrading various organic compounds in harmless residues.
- After its use, it degrades spontaneously without leading to the formation of toxic xenobiont (the synthesis products in biology).
- Does not require any neutralization prior to disposal.
Anolyte and Catholyte also have the following characteristics:
- Do not require special attention to handling.
- Can be used in all stages of disinfection (Anolyte) and cleaning (Catolyte).
- At recommended concentrations, do not bleach materials and surfaces.
- Are hypoallergenic.
- Have a quick action.
- Their production only develops water, hydrogen and oxygen.
- Generated by-products are not toxic, are environmentally friendly and do not leave chemical residues.
- Can be generated in situ by eliminating the handling and storage of chemicals.
- Can be safely disposed of in sewage systems.
Here you can find some ECA Water Applications