Mixed Oxidant and Water treatment
Industrial process water and wastewater treatment:
Mixed Oxidant is the lowest cost supplier of chlorine for disinfection and oxidation of process water and wastewater prior to discharge.
Mixed Oxidant Solution chemistry is more effective at biofilm control, Biochemical and Chemical oxygen demand removal, breakpoint chlorination of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal.
As one of the world’s most precious natural resources, the reuse of water is becoming increasingly important.
Mixed Oxidant is both the most cost-effective solution and the preferred technology for disinfection and oxidation of wastewater for reuse or reintroduction into the environment eliminating many of the negative problems associated with traditional chlorine disinfection.
Tests prove that Anolyte is an effective disinfectant
Tests have shown that Anolyte meets the standards of the German Drinking Water Ordinance (TVO)
The trihalogen substances produced during the production of Anolyte are also far below the standards of the German Drinking Water Ordinance (TVO) and do not pose any danger. Anolyte is recommended as an effective, safe and efficient disinfectant! Important conclusions from the report of the IHU (Institute for Hygiene and Environment in Germany) are listed below:
Anolyte is supplied into the water circuit from a container with a dosing pump. The dosage depends on the properties and quality of the water.
|Microbiological values of water (TMC)||Dilution ratio of Anolyte in water||Concentration of active chlorine in Anolyte |
|Concentration of active chlorine in treated water |
(mg / l)
|Low (up to 10)||1/2000||300||0,15|
|Very high (500-5000)||1/500||500||1|
How is Anolyte generated?
With water, electricity and NaCl solution a very strong but harmless agent is produced in a diaphragm, which is ideal for water treatment. Anolyte is a transparent and colorless liquid with a slight odor of chlorine.
It contains various oxidizing acids and consists mainly of hypochloride and sodium hypochlorite (active ingredients - HClO, ClO2, HClO3, HClO4, H2O2, O2, CLO, ClO2-, ClO3-, O, HO2-, OH), which have a strong bactericidal and sporicidal effect in Anolyte.
The properties of neutral Anolyte are the following:
Due to the very low concentrations of active chlorine (see table below), there is no toxicity or any other form of toxic substances.
The advantages of treated water with Anolyte
|Water treatment||Concentration of active chlorine (in treated water)|
|Drinking water||1 – 4 mg/l||0,25 – 0,5 mg/l|
|Groundwater||35 – 55 mg/l||5 – 10 mg/l|
Due to disinfection with Anolyte, the TMC value is = 0, and treatment with Anolyte does not change the important characteristic values and properties of the water.
Drinking water in the third world
Drinking water for the population in third countries is a recurring problem.
River water is collected in dams and pumped from there into the water network of towns and large municipalities.
However, there are still many regions in developing countries where there is no water network.
Safe and economical supply of drinking water
However, there is always a source of water near villages or towns. These can be springs, rivers or wells. And also here it is possible to get a perfect and healthy drinking water.
Water sources in developing countries are primarily identical or very similar to the following pictures:
The water from the springs is filtered through sand and gravel.
After filtration in the sand filter, the water is disinfected with Anolyte.
We offer two possibilities:
Dosage via an injection system. The disinfected water is pumped from the pump station into the water network.
Disinfected water by Anolyte in the tank/reservoir before it is re-circulated to the house.
Drinking water disinfection or sterilisation
The comparative study shows the clear advantage of Anolyte
|Chlorine||Is used in gaseous state and requires strict safety measures||High performance oxidizer and disinfectant||Strict requirements for transport and storage|
|Eliminates tastes and odours||Possible health hazard in case of leakage|
|Control of algae growth, biological sludge and microorganisms||Side effects due to chloroform|
|Decomposes organic contaminants (phenols etc.)||The MAC in water will be increased in the future because there was no evidence of direct activity of chloroform on DNA|
|Decomposes hydrogen sulphide, cyanides, ammonium and other nitrogen, magnesium and iron oxidants|
|Hypochlorite||Use in liquid and granulated forms (concentration 10-20%)||Effective against most pathogenic microorganisms||Not effective against parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)|
|Can be used on site, electrochemical||Relatively safe during storage and use||Loses its effect during long storage|
|Does not require transport and storage if production takes place on site||Possible danger of gaseous chlorine emission|
|Requires either immediate use or special containers to clean the source water from heavy metal ions|
|If produced on site, NaCIO solution with the active chlorine concentration forms less than 450 mg/l chlorate during storage|
|UV Radiation||UV Radiation is capable of killing various microorganisms||Does not require storage or transport of chemicals||No residual effect|
|No side effects||Not effective against parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)|
|Requires considerable costs for equipment and maintenance|
|High energy cost|
|Disinfection activity depends on water turbidity, hardness (sediments on the surface), precipitation and organic contamination. These factors cause a change in the wavelength|
|Chloramine||Is formed during the reaction of ammonium with active chlorine||Its properties are stable and have a lasting effect||Weak disinfectant and oxidant compared to chlorine|
|It is used as a disinfectant over a longer period of time||Facilitates the breakdown of foreign tastes and odours||Not effective against parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)|
|Reduces the level of trihalomethane and organic chlorine acid product||Considerable dosages and extended contact time are required for disinfection|
|Prevents the formation of biological sludge in distribution systems||Dangerous for patients with dialyzers because chloramine can penetrate dialyzer membranes and effect erythrocytes|
|Forms nitrogen-containing side effects|
|Ozone||Has been used for some time in some European countries for disinfection, colour removal, taste and odour control||Strong disinfectant and oxidizer||Side effects include:|
|Very effective against Giardia, Cryptosporidium and any other pathogenic microflora||Aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, trihalomethanes containing bromine (including bromoform), bromates (in the presence of the bromides), hyperoxides, bromo-acetic acid|
|Facilitates reduction of turbidity in water||Requires the use of biologically active filters to remove side effects|
|Removes foreign tastes and odours||Residual disinfection effect uncertain|
|Does not form chlorine containing trihalomethanes||Requires high initial equipment costs|
|Considerable costs for training and installation support|
|When reacting with organic agents, ozone dissolves into smaller components|
|Chlorine dioxide||Local production only||Works in low doses||None on-site generation|
|The most effective disinfectant and strongest oxidant among all chlorine-based agents||Does not form chloramines||Requires transport and storage of chemicals|
|Complicates trihalomethane arrangement||In reaction with organic contaminants, chlorine dioxide forms side effects such as form chlorates and chlorite ions|
|Destroys phenols - source of unpleasant taste and odour|
|Effective oxidizer and disinfectant for all types of microorganisms, including parasites, (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) and viruses|
|Does not form bromides from bromates|
|Facilitates the decomposition of iron and magnesium by rapid oxidation and precipitation of oxides|
|Anolyte||Electrochemical activation of a salt solution in the reactor||Strong disinfectant and oxidant||None|
|Very effective against bacteria and viruses|
|Highly effective as a sporicidal agent|
|Eliminates bad tastes and odors|
|Successfully removes biofilm|
|Considerably less arrangement of the chlorine agents, halogens and TMT|
|No toxic product: chlorites (ClO 2) and chlorates (ClO 3)|
|No acute or chronic toxic behaviour when diluted in water|
ECA stands for electrochemical activation and is a technology that has been employed for more than 100 years, although it was not until the 1970s that the physicochemical properties of ECA were extensively researched at the All-Russian Institute for Medical Engineering.
The transformation of low mineral salt solutions into an activated metastable state, by electrochemical unipolar action, generates two separate and distinct compounds, generically termed anolyte and catholyte which correspond to their derivative electrode chambers:
The use of electrolysis for the production of reductant-oxidant solutions is used in the processes of water purification and decontamination, as well as for transforming water or diluted electrolyte solutions into environmentally friendly anti-microbial, washing, extractive and other functionally useful solutions.
This is largely due to ECA high activity, use of cheap raw materials and ease of production.
The system produces a liquid disinfectant, non-toxic and degradable, capable of destroying bacteria, spores, viruses, moulds, yeasts, fungi, biofilms (biological incrustations) on pipes and removing odours. Its operation requires only water, Sodium or Potassium Chloride (salt) and electricity.
HOW ECA WORKS
ECA works the same way as the human immune system. When the body is under attack from invading bacteria and viruses, the immune system immediately responds by sending neutrophils (white blood cells) to the invasion site.
Neutrophils are one of the body’s main defences against bacteria and, once activated, produce large amounts of a mixed oxidant solution which is effective in eliminating invading microbes and pathogens.
This weak acid, which occurs naturally in the human body, is called hypochlorous acid (HClO) and it is a potent disinfectant. It is non-toxic to humans and is highly effective as an antimicrobial agent with rapid action. Hypochlorous acid is widely recognized as one of the most effective known biocides.
In detail, the system consists of an electrolysis cell containing two electrodes, a cathode and an anode, separated by a diaphragmatic membrane. In the cell is injected an aqueous solution consisting of filtered and softened water and, depending on the application, sodium chloride (NaCl, salt) or potassium chloride (KCl). With the use of electricity with predefined and controlled amperage and voltage values, the cell produces an electrically-activated liquid, Anolyte, with high disinfection power that can be used in a variety of applications.
This unipolar electrochemical activation created by potential gradients of millions of volts per cm2 between the anode and cathode terminals, results in the creation of solutions whose pH, Oxidation Reduction Potentials (ORP) and other physicochemical properties, lie outside of the range which can be achieved by conventional chemical means.
CHARACTERISTIC AND ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRO-ACTIVATED SOLUTIONS
Electro-activated solutions produced by the system are respectively:
|Acid Anolyte||Active Cl |
500 / 700 ppm
|2.5 / 5.0||1200 / 1000 mV|
|Neutral Anolyte||Active Cl |
500 / 700 ppm
|6.0 / 8.0||950 / 850 mV|
|Catolyte||Sodium hydroxide |
|10.0 / 12.0||-800 / -900 mV|
As presented in several scientific publications, multicellular organisms, including humans and hot blood mammals, to defend themselves against pathogens and foreign microorganisms are able to synthesize, through metabolism, complex mixtures of metastable oxidizing compounds.
These compounds possess a wide spectrum of action and are capable of damaging all major systemic groups of pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, moulds, spores, etc.) without damaging multicellular organisms and human tissues.
The oxidizing liquids and their chemical production mechanisms are similar to those generated in our ECA system and are precisely these common characteristics that give Anolyte a high biocompatibility with human tissues and multicellular organisms besides not being toxic to the environment.
Anolyte has the following advantages:
Anolyte and Catholyte also have the following characteristics: