Water treatment

Mixed Oxidant and Water treatment

Industrial process water and wastewater treatment:

Mixed Oxidant is the lowest cost supplier of chlorine for disinfection and oxidation of process water and wastewater prior to discharge.
Mixed Oxidant Solution chemistry is more effective at biofilm control, Biochemical and Chemical oxygen demand removal, breakpoint chlorination of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal.

Municipal wastewater:

As one of the world’s most precious natural resources, the reuse of water is becoming increasingly important.
Mixed Oxidant is both the most cost-effective solution and the preferred technology for disinfection and oxidation of wastewater for reuse or reintroduction into the environment eliminating many of the negative problems associated with traditional chlorine disinfection.



Tests prove that Anolyte is an effective disinfectant


Tests have shown that Anolyte meets the standards of the German Drinking Water Ordinance (TVO)

The trihalogen substances produced during the production of Anolyte are also far below the standards of the German Drinking Water Ordinance (TVO) and do not pose any danger. Anolyte is recommended as an effective, safe and efficient disinfectant! Important conclusions from the report of the IHU (Institute for Hygiene and Environment in Germany) are listed below:

  • Drinking water treatment in cities and rural areas
  • Drinking water treatment in food industry
  • Water treatment in the brewery and beverage industry
  • Drinking water treatment on boats and in airplanes
  • Drinking water treatment in restaurants, hotels
  • Water treatment in hospitals, etc.
  • Other applications can be found in animal husbandry

Anolyte is supplied into the water circuit from a container with a dosing pump. The dosage depends on the properties and quality of the water.

Microbiological values of water (TMC) Dilution ratio of Anolyte in water Concentration of active chlorine in Anolyte
(mg /l)
Concentration of active chlorine in treated water
(mg / l)
Low (up to 10) 1/2000 300 0,15
Average (10-50) 1/1000 300 0,3
High (50-500) 1/1000 500 0,5
Very high (500-5000) 1/500 500 1

How is Anolyte generated?

With water, electricity and NaCl solution a very strong but harmless agent is produced in a diaphragm, which is ideal for water treatment. Anolyte is a transparent and colorless liquid with a slight odor of chlorine.

It contains various oxidizing acids and consists mainly of hypochloride and sodium hypochlorite (active ingredients - HClO, ClO2, HClO3, HClO4, H2O2, O2, CLO, ClO2-, ClO3-, O, HO2-, OH), which have a strong bactericidal and sporicidal effect in Anolyte.

The properties of neutral Anolyte are the following:

  • pH value of ~7.0
  • Concentration = active chlorine 500 mg / l
  • No toxic ingredients are present

Due to the very low concentrations of active chlorine (see table below), there is no toxicity or any other form of toxic substances.

The advantages of treated water with Anolyte

Water treatment Concentration of active chlorine (in treated water)  
  Hypochlorite Anolyte
Drinking water 1 – 4 mg/l 0,25 – 0,5 mg/l
Groundwater 35 – 55 mg/l 5 – 10 mg/l

We guarantee:

Due to disinfection with Anolyte, the TMC value is = 0, and treatment with Anolyte does not change the important characteristic values and properties of the water.

  • Anolyte removes the biofilm and algae in the water system
  • The pipes do not need to be rinsed additionally after disinfection
  • Anolyte retains its effect in undiluted condition for approx. 12 months
  • The dosage of Anolyte is simple

Drinking water in the third world

Drinking water for the population in third countries is a recurring problem.

River water is collected in dams and pumped from there into the water network of towns and large municipalities.

However, there are still many regions in developing countries where there is no water network.

Safe and economical supply of drinking water

However, there is always a source of water near villages or towns. These can be springs, rivers or wells. And also here it is possible to get a perfect and healthy drinking water.

Water sources in developing countries are primarily identical or very similar to the following pictures:

The filtration


The water from the springs is filtered through sand and gravel.

The treatment


After filtration in the sand filter, the water is disinfected with Anolyte.


We offer two possibilities:

First method:

Dosage via an injection system. The disinfected water is pumped from the pump station into the water network.


Second method:

Disinfected water by Anolyte in the tank/reservoir before it is re-circulated to the house.


  • We offer systems for water treatment from 10m3 to 4.000m3 with only one device.
  • The production can take place anywhere where there is electricity and water and salt.
  • Even people in the third world can be provided with good quality drinking water.
  • We achieve international standards like WHO.
  • Water is one of the most important foodstuff

Drinking water disinfection or sterilisation

The comparative study shows the clear advantage of Anolyte

Disinfection Description Advantages


Chlorine Is used in gaseous state and requires strict safety measures High performance oxidizer and disinfectant Strict requirements for transport and storage
    Eliminates tastes and odours Possible health hazard in case of leakage
    Control of algae growth, biological sludge and microorganisms Side effects due to chloroform
    Decomposes organic contaminants (phenols etc.) The MAC in water will be increased in the future because there was no evidence of direct activity of chloroform on DNA
    Decomposes hydrogen sulphide, cyanides, ammonium and other nitrogen, magnesium and iron oxidants  


 Disinfection  Description Advantages  Restrictions 
 Hypochlorite  Use in liquid and granulated forms (concentration 10-20%)  Effective against most pathogenic microorganisms  Not effective against parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
   Can be used on site, electrochemical  Relatively safe during storage and use  Loses its effect during long storage
     Does not require transport and storage if production takes place on site  Possible danger of gaseous chlorine emission
       Forms trihalomethanes
       Requires either immediate use or special containers to clean the source water from heavy metal ions
       If produced on site, NaCIO solution with the active chlorine concentration forms less than 450 mg/l chlorate during storage


 Disinfection  Description  Advantages  Restrictions
 UV Radiation  UV Radiation is capable of killing various microorganisms  Does not require storage or transport of chemicals  No residual effect
     No side effects  Not effective against parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
       Requires considerable costs for equipment and maintenance
       High energy cost
       Disinfection activity depends on water turbidity, hardness (sediments on the surface), precipitation and organic contamination. These factors cause a change in the wavelength


 Disinfection  Description  Advantages  Restrictions
 Chloramine  Is formed during the reaction of ammonium with active chlorine  Its properties are stable and have a lasting effect  Weak disinfectant and oxidant compared to chlorine
   It is used as a disinfectant over a longer period of time  Facilitates the breakdown of foreign tastes and odours  Not effective against parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
     Reduces the level of trihalomethane and organic chlorine acid product  Considerable dosages and extended contact time are required for disinfection
     Prevents the formation of biological sludge in distribution systems  Dangerous for patients with dialyzers because chloramine can penetrate dialyzer membranes and effect erythrocytes
     Forms nitrogen-containing side effects  


Disinfection Description Advantages Restrictions
Ozone Has been used for some time in some European countries for disinfection, colour removal, taste and odour control Strong disinfectant and oxidizer Side effects include:
    Very effective against Giardia, Cryptosporidium and any other pathogenic microflora Aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, trihalomethanes containing bromine (including bromoform), bromates (in the presence of the bromides), hyperoxides, bromo-acetic acid
    Facilitates reduction of turbidity in water Requires the use of biologically active filters to remove side effects
    Removes foreign tastes and odours Residual disinfection effect uncertain
    Does not form chlorine containing trihalomethanes Requires high initial equipment costs
      Considerable costs for training and installation support
      When reacting with organic agents, ozone dissolves into smaller components


Disinfection Description Advantages Restrictions
Chlorine dioxide Local production only Works in low doses None on-site generation
   The most effective disinfectant and strongest oxidant among all chlorine-based agents Does not form chloramines Requires transport and storage of chemicals
    Complicates trihalomethane arrangement In reaction with organic contaminants, chlorine dioxide forms side effects such as form chlorates and chlorite ions
    Destroys phenols - source of unpleasant taste and odour  
    Effective oxidizer and disinfectant for all types of microorganisms, including parasites, (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) and viruses  
     Does not form bromides from bromates  
     Facilitates the decomposition of iron and magnesium by rapid oxidation and precipitation of oxides  


 Disinfection  Description  Advantages  Restrictions
 Anolyte  Electrochemical activation of a salt solution in the reactor  Strong disinfectant and oxidant  None
     Very effective against bacteria and viruses  
     Highly effective as a sporicidal agent  
     Eliminates bad tastes and odors  
     Successfully removes biofilm  
     Considerably less arrangement of the chlorine agents, halogens and TMT  
     No toxic product: chlorites (ClO 2) and chlorates (ClO 3)  
     No acute or chronic toxic behaviour when diluted in water  
     Low cost  


ECA stands for electrochemical activation and is a technology that has been employed for more than 100 years, although it was not until the 1970s that the physicochemical properties of ECA were extensively researched at the All-Russian Institute for Medical Engineering.

The transformation of low mineral salt solutions into an activated metastable state, by electrochemical unipolar action, generates two separate and distinct compounds, generically termed anolyte and catholyte which correspond to their derivative electrode chambers:

  • The anodic (positive charge) solution contains a variety of oxidants, including hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, peroxide anion, superoxide, ozone, monoatomic oxygen and free radicals, known to possess antimicrobial properties
  • The cathodic (negative charge) solution develops detergent properties, contains sodium hydroxide in a highly excited state

The use of electrolysis for the production of reductant-oxidant solutions is used in the processes of water purification and decontamination, as well as for transforming water or diluted electrolyte solutions into environmentally friendly anti-microbial, washing, extractive and other functionally useful solutions.

This is largely due to ECA high activity, use of cheap raw materials and ease of production.

The system produces a liquid disinfectant, non-toxic and degradable, capable of destroying bacteria, spores, viruses, moulds, yeasts, fungi, biofilms (biological incrustations) on pipes and removing odours. Its operation requires only water, Sodium or Potassium Chloride (salt) and electricity.



ECA works the same way as the human immune system. When the body is under attack from invading bacteria and viruses, the immune system immediately responds by sending neutrophils (white blood cells) to the invasion site.

Neutrophils are one of the body’s main defences against bacteria and, once activated, produce large amounts of a mixed oxidant solution which is effective in eliminating invading microbes and pathogens.

This weak acid, which occurs naturally in the human body, is called hypochlorous acid (HClO) and it is a potent disinfectant. It is non-toxic to humans and is highly effective as an antimicrobial agent with rapid action. Hypochlorous acid is widely recognized as one of the most effective known biocides.

In detail, the system consists of an electrolysis cell containing two electrodes, a cathode and an anode, separated by a diaphragmatic membrane. In the cell is injected an aqueous solution consisting of filtered and softened water and, depending on the application, sodium chloride (NaCl, salt) or potassium chloride (KCl). With the use of electricity with predefined and controlled amperage and voltage values, the cell produces an electrically-activated liquid, Anolyte, with high disinfection power that can be used in a variety of applications.

This unipolar electrochemical activation created by potential gradients of millions of volts per cm2 between the anode and cathode terminals, results in the creation of solutions whose pH, Oxidation Reduction Potentials (ORP) and other physicochemical properties, lie outside of the range which can be achieved by conventional chemical means.



Electro-activated solutions produced by the system are respectively:

  • Acid Anolyte is a very strong oxidizing and disinfecting agent and can be used wherever there are no constraints on the pH value (in the absence of corrosion hazards). Acid Anolyte acts extremely quickly and effectively against all bacteria, viruses, spores, moulds, fungi and algae, even if diluted in water or nebulized.
  • Neutral Anolyte is used wherever a neutral pH (corrosion risk) is needed. Neutral Anolyte is extremely effective against a wide range of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, spores, moulds and fungi.
  • Catolyte is a powerful reducing agent, it is alkaline and is an excellent detergent liquid that can also be used in flocculation and precipitation of heavy metals. It can also be used in applications where pH correction is required.
SolutionActive ElementpHORP/REDOX
Acid Anolyte Active Cl
500 / 700 ppm
2.5 / 5.0 1200 / 1000 mV
Neutral Anolyte Active Cl
500 / 700 ppm
6.0 / 8.0 950 / 850 mV
Catolyte Sodium hydroxide
1000 ppm
10.0 / 12.0 -800 / -900 mV


As presented in several scientific publications, multicellular organisms, including humans and hot blood mammals, to defend themselves against pathogens and foreign microorganisms are able to synthesize, through metabolism, complex mixtures of metastable oxidizing compounds.

These compounds possess a wide spectrum of action and are capable of damaging all major systemic groups of pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, mycobacteria, viruses, moulds, spores, etc.) without damaging multicellular organisms and human tissues.

The oxidizing liquids and their chemical production mechanisms are similar to those generated in our ECA system and are precisely these common characteristics that give Anolyte a high biocompatibility with human tissues and multicellular organisms besides not being toxic to the environment.

Anolyte has the following advantages:

  • It has a high ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) value of between 850 and 1200 mV, obtained thanks to the numerous oxidizing compounds present in large quantities but each with low concentration; this peculiarity allows Anolyte to have much greater efficacy than chloramines, sodium hypochlorite and most other disinfectant and sterilizing agents.
  • It is a powerful biocidal product that kills pathogenic, viral and fungal microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella Pneumophila, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Bacillus Cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, Hepatitis B virus, virus Poliovirus, HIV, Adenovirus, Norovirus, pathogenic Tuberculosis, Dermatomycoses and other).
  • Thanks to the mixture of various metastable active ingredients of which it is composed, Anolyte eliminates the ability to adapt the microorganisms to its bactericidal effect, thus not allowing the developing resistance.
  • Has a low concentration of active oxygen and chlorine compounds, which guarantees absolute safety and non-toxicity to humans and animals, even after prolonged use of the Anolyte.
  • Can be applied in the liquid form, ice or aerosol (mist), in pure or diluted form.
  • Contrary to other disinfectants, it can be used as a multifunctional solution at all levels of disinfection, both as a detergent and as a sterilizer at the same time.
  • Degrading various organic compounds in harmless residues.
  • After its use, it degrades spontaneously without leading to the formation of toxic xenobiont (the synthesis products in biology).
  • Does not require any neutralization prior to disposal.

Anolyte and Catholyte also have the following characteristics:

  • Do not require special attention to handling.
  • Can be used in all stages of disinfection (Anolyte) and cleaning (Catolyte).
  • At recommended concentrations, do not bleach materials and surfaces.
  • Are hypoallergenic.
  • Have a quick action.
  • Their production only develops water, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Generated by-products are not toxic, are environmentally friendly and do not leave chemical residues.
  • Can be generated in situ by eliminating the handling and storage of chemicals.
  • Can be safely disposed of in sewage systems.

Here you can find some ECA Water Applications


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Water treatment


About Yasin Akgün

Yasin Akgün, of Turkish origin, was born in Munich on 22 May 1977. After completing his high school diploma he completed his studies of mechanical engineering at the TU Munich. Since 2006, he is the proud owner of the Munich watering place, which was in the inner courtyard of Fraunhoferstr. 13 from 1987 until 2018.
Since 2018 Aquacentrum has moved to Garching, a suburb of Munich.>More about Yasin Akgün in his biography
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