The Most Important FAQs

FAQ’s | Alkaline activated water | Water Filters | Water Treatment


The FAQ video interview about alkaline activated water is presented in detail by Mr. Asenbaum to deeply understand the subjects of water and water treatment. The video shows the most important questions and answers, which still cause doubt, for example: the subject about water and stomach acids. Below you will find our pool of collected FAQ’s and you can also browse through our FAQ database.

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FAQ’s | Alkaline activated water | Stomach acids



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A categorised overview of all our Frequently Asked Questions about alkaline, electro-activated water, hydrogen water, opposed views, technical questions and answers, proof from experiments

The following questions and answers have been very kindly compiled by author and researcher Karl Heinz Asenbaum over the last 12 years (!) and these are continuously updated and extended. These FAQ’s and a few more dealing with the subject of water and water treatment can be found in German on his knowledge database.


The most important FAQ's

Posted by Karl Heinz Asenbaum on Friday, 28. October 2016

The transfer of hydrogen onto aged food

Water drinking. Yet it can also be avoided if you were to share Heinz Erhards’s opinion. One should also have a water ionizer. An important characteristic of alkaline activated water is its high content of hydrogen gas dH2. With a good flow-through water ionizer this lies at a pH value of 9 and at room temperature between 1200 and 1300 micrograms/l. You should drink this water with a pH value of up to 9.5, which means, depending on which ionizer, 1250 to 1450 micrograms/l. If the water ionizer can reach higher pH values, for example pH 11, which should not be drunk long term, is a dH2 value of 1800 micrograms (1,8 mg) also possible. This can only be used for the transfer of hydrogen to other foods. Since hydrogen is very willing to give off its electrons, a reduction of the ORP occurs, which signals an increase in electron availability.

EAW Book Manfred Hoffmann %22Vom Lebendigem ins Lebensmittel%22

The nutrition researcher Prof. Manfred Hoffmann claims in his book “From Life in Foods”, that a sinking ORP of respectively 18 mV means a doubling of the electron offer and that the difference in quality of a certain type of food is best measured objectively by measuring the ORP: The lower – the better!
A lower ORP is mostly seen in organic food. Yet it highly depends on the freshness. For the ORP, and with that is meant the hydrogen content in the cell tissue of our nourishment, is very volatile. Hydrogen is the smallest of all elements and as a volatile gas can escape from organic structures virtually without any hinderance.
The decisive factor is that, by soaking foods in alkaline activated water, the hydrogen content is increased and is therefore “refreshed”.


EAW Apple hydrogen transfer

We love freshness

The apple freshly picked from the tree, the gherkin freshly picked from the field – that is how we most enjoy the taste. Yet the apple from Australia and the gherkin from Spain have lost a lot of their vital energy on their long journey before we can take a bite. A lot of water loss can be avoided by cooling and vacuum packaging. Like that the produce still looks fresh and not wilted when we buy them. But the loss of hydrogen cannot be stopped so easily this way. What we see is apparent freshness. Most people can certainly taste and smell the difference of freshly picked fruit from the tree or field and food that has had a long journey.

But freshness can be objectively measured: The Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP)

Left an example:

Half an apple (Braeburn variety) is laid for 1 hour in alkaline activated water pH 9,5 and an ORP of (-) 395 mV (CSE). The other half is not, only measured.

Output measurement of the apple: (+) 328 mV (CSE)

Final ORP of the apple (+) 232 mV (CSE)

Absolute ORP difference 88 mV
The electron range of the apple doubled almost five times by soaking it for 60 minutes in alkaline activated water!

The reason is the dH2 which permeates the apple and allows the ORP to sink.


EAW ORP gain red currants

How much ORP gain is possible?

Mostly a short immersion in electro activated water is sufficient, especially if the food has a soft skin or shell, like red currants or apricots.

An example of red currants immersed for 30 minutes in alkaline activated water pH 9,8 with ORP (-) 413 mV (CSE)

ORP of red currants:                          (+) 068 mV (CSE)

Final ORP:                                            (-) 250 mV (CSE)

Absolute ORP difference:                        318 mV

Half an apricot is immersed for 20 minutes in alkaline activated water pH 9,9 with ORP (-) 429 mV (CSE). The other half is only measured.

Untreated half:                                    (+) 348 mV (CSE)

Treated half:                                         (-) 209 mV (CSE)

Absolute ORP difference:                         557 mV

With skinless foods, such as raw meat or fish, is an immersion of just 2-3 minutes enough for a substantial effect to take place.


orp contactless activation

The so called “contactless” activation

When it was not known that migrating hydrogen gas was responsible for the redox potential’s waste in neighbouring fluid systems, all sorts of theories were discussed about a “contactless” activation. One cause of the “contactless” discussion was a trial that showed how a latex condom filled with electrically activated alkaline water was able to, inexplicably, transfer its negative ORP to the water that it was immersed in. Later it was realized that a condom is maybe not as watertight as one had thought.

The intestine is known to be porous. I have shown how well alkaline activated water transports hydrogen as well as the additional minerals in the body. To illustrate this I filled a sheep’s intestine, usually used for Weisswurst, a Munich sausage, and filled it with alkaline activated water pH 9.5 and ORP (-) 349 mV and laid it for 10 minutes in a physiological saline solution (blood substitute) pH 7.03 and ORP (+) 194 mV.

The absolute ORP gain was 480 mV, almost 0.5 Volts.

Since it is again and again falsely claimed that inorganic calcium from hard water is not absorbed by the intestine, I decided to measure the hardness of the 3 liquids:

• Physiological saline solution: 0 mg/l CaCO3

• Alkaline activated water in the intestine 445 mg/l CaCO3

• Saline solution after 10 minutes: 225 mg/l CaCO3

It shows that calcium has migrated effortlessly, like hydrogen. Minerals in water can be wonderfully absorbed.


EAW Hydrogen transfer through packaging

Hydrogen transfer through packaging

The quick mobility of dissolved hydrogen in alkaline activated water has its limits when in packaging made of thick glass and stainless steel. These are ideal for storing hydrogen rich water. Plastic wrapping is especially permeable, so it can be used to “activate” liquid contents like juices.

A high quality carrot juice was improved by pouring it into a freezer bag and immersing that for 20 minutes into alkaline activated water (pH 9,9 ORP (-) 423 mV (CSE). The ORP improved by 241 mV.

This corresponds to a 13 times doubling of the electron range.

Probably the most surprising results came from 0,5 l fresh, full cream milk in its carton, immersed for 30 minutes:

The ORP improved by 97 mV. I like to describe this procedure in my presentations as: “the cow in the fridge”.

The pH value, with all these examples, only changes positively by a tenth of the value. OH- ions are slightly inhibited by many barriers.


EAW Eggs in alkaline water

Eggs in alkaline water

Almost anyone can see, taste or smell if a cracked open chicken egg is fresh. But should eggs be thrown away or fed to the Easter bunny if they are slightly out of date?

If you place raw eggs 30 minutes in alkaline activated water, you will see it, taste it and smell it. Rotten eggs, where bacteria has already made its way in, cannot be saved. Even very fresh eggs gain a lot from this procedure.

Two fresh, organic eggs from the same carton were separated into egg white and egg yolk and evaluated according to their ORP:

Untreated egg:

Egg white ORP:    (+) 59 mV (CSE)

Egg yolk ORP:    (+) 34 mV (CSE)

Egg immersed for 30 minutes in alkaline activated water:

Egg white ORP:    (-) 56 mV (CSE)

Egg yolk ORP:    (+) 14 mV (CSE)

Absolute ORP gain: egg white 115 mV – egg yolk 20 mV


An end to juice shops


With the distribution of water ionizers are the end of high cost and environmental damage from the bottled water industry already foreseeable. But do we still need chain stores for fruit and vegetable juices, even for lemonades?

From coke to orange juice: looking at it more closely, most local beverage manufacturers are not producers, instead they are bottlers for concentrates produced somewhere in the world to which they just add water and, if necessary, sugar or carbonic acid. Environmental politicians have long demanded to decentralize the mixing of concentrates with water and other additives and leave it up to the consumer. Almost all professional chefs use their own mixing device in their restaurants.

Initial approaches to reduce expensive hauling of bottles on the motorways were already instigated. Yet it is not that easy to get, for example, an apple or orange juice concentrate for the household to mix oneself. Surprising, since you find apple and orange juice “made with concentrate” in abundance in the supermarkets.

Are “syrup” times a forgotten bygone, where a fresh juice was not even affordable? Or is it fear of frowning upon tap water, which is trusted less than the water used by the bottling enterprises to dilute the imported concentrates?

With a water ionizer and its first class, built in pre filters, you can produce a purer and higher quality water than the beverage industry. I will now demonstrate to you that even the result from mixing juice concentrates is measurably better, a huge improvement.

Posted by Karl Heinz Asenbaum on  Wednesday, 4. May 2016

Armin K.: Why do you still need to measure the redox potential of the alkaline activated water when you have already determined the pH? The Nernst equation can be used for the conversion?


The redox potential or ORP (oxidation reduction potential) in millivolts with a reference electrode is a measure of the willingness of an aqueous solution to be electron attracting (+ mV) or repelling ( – mV ). Acids attract electrons (oxidize) because of the H + ions , bases because of the OH – ions give up electrons (reduce). The whole thing is an exchange process, which is called a redox reaction. Such redox reactions also take place at the measuring electrode that is either oxidized or reduced, which is then displayed to us as mV value.

Since, in a redox reaction in an aqueous solution acids and bases neutralize, by means of H + and OH- make water, there is also, thanks to the Nernst equation, a calculable relationship between pH values and the redox potential:

ΔΕ = -0,059 V (pH1 – pH2)

Further information:

The Russian researchers V. Prilutsky and V. Bakhir have found that the calculated redox potential, according to the Nernst equation, of electrolytically treated water does not coincide with the actual measured during the relaxation time. It is much greater than calculated in the anode chamber and much smaller than calculated in the cathode chamber. (Electrochemically activated water: anomalous properties, mechanism of biological action, Moscow 1997)

This “anomaly” of activated water during the relaxation is actually a very crucial feature, based on its exceptional properties. It is therefore, as the subtitle of my book on electro-activated water indeed states: “An invention of extraordinary potential”. Because of this “anomaly” can the measurement of the redox potential not be spared by arithmetic.

A real anomaly, i.e.: an inexplicable miracle, it is not. The presence of dissolved hydrogen gas and the simultaneous absence of dissolved oxygen gas is the cause of the unusual redox potential in alkaline, and with reverse gas ratios in acidic activated water. As a consumer, of course you do not have to measure, especially since the ORP is not easy.

The activated water’s particularity has long been known and is tested and other peculiarities of the water are not constantly tested, for example whether lakes really always freeze over from above.

Strong negative redox potentials of activated water can also be used for removing rust, as illustrated here using the example of a rusted iron chain that has been inserted 30 minutes into alkaline activated water.

Rusty chain 1Rusty chain 2Rusty chain 3


Excerpt from the book “Karl Heinz Asenbaum: Electrically activated water – An invention with extraordinary potential.”
Copyright 2016

Link to this post | Oxidation reduction potential 

Alkaline activated water. What is it and what is it not?

by Karl Heinz Asenbaum  on Tuesday, 8. March 2016

Hermann K.: Alkaline water, alkaline activated water, ionized water, electro-activated drinking water, electrolyte water, Hydrogen-Rich-Water…. slowly I don’t know my way around. Which water do you recommend and what is what?

  • Since the nature of electro-activated water was not understood up until recently, since 1931 over 50 different descriptions have emerged, which can be drunk very well. Originally, the inventor Alfons Natterer spoke of acidic, alkaline and neutral electrolyte water. Decisive is, since then, the electrolytic production as opposed to, what I like to call, “chemical water ionizers”. A full overview of the singular descriptions and procedures you will find on the E-book DVD ROM of this FAQ book

Redoxspannung TemperaturChart

  • Since in Japan because of other cell construction, initially only the alkaline and acidic variety were produced, the term “Alkaline Ionized Water” was developed for the drinkable alkaline part. This is an unclear definition since it expresses the same twice. The water becomes alkaline due to a part of the molecules splitting into acidic and alkaline ions. So the water is separated by electrolysis into its ions H+ and OH-. On one side of the membrane, alkaline water (from OH- ions) results and on the other side of the membrane acidic water (from H+ ions) results. The counter term of alkaline activated water is acidic ionized water. Often it is referred to as oxidized or oxidizing water.
  • The term “ionized water”, brought up by Dr. Dina Aschbach in a book,  is an unfortunate choice of words because it only brings the water ions to the foreground. The electric activity of the “activated water” does not found itself directly on the alkaline or acidic character, which is produced from the OH- and H+ water ions, but rather on the enrichment of dissolved oxygen in acidic water and the enrichment of dissolved hydrogen in alkaline water. Due to these dissolved gases a very high (positive) oxidation reduction potential (ORP) is reached, up to 1200 mV (SHE =Standard Hydrogen Electrode) on the oxygen side and an extraordinarily low (negative) oxidation reduction potential, up to (-) 800 mV (SHE) on the hydrogen side. These are the values that can be measured with a SHE electrode (standard hydrogen electrode). Since in practice one almost only measures with CSE electrodes (common silver/silverchloride electrodes), are the values up to + 993 mV (CSE) on the oxygen side and from -593 mV on the hydrogen side. These are values measured at 25º C, where the difference between the measurement method and SHE measurements amount to a difference of + 207 mV. The relationship with other temperatures is illustrated in the following graph.

By electrolyzing water in an electrolytic cell with a diaphragm membrane it doesn’t only form both water ions H+ and OH- from water molecules. Oxygen and hydrogen is also released, the difference in both sides is explained by the fact that oxygen gas and hydrogen gas possess different dissolving powers.

Solubility of oxygen mg/l at 1 atmospheric pressure 101,325 Pa

15 degrees C 2,756
20 degrees C 2,501
25 degrees C 2,293
30 degrees C 2,122
35 degrees C 1,982

Solubility of hydrogen mg/l at 1 atmospheric pressure 101,325 Pa

15 degrees C 1,510
20 degrees C 1,455
25 degrees C 1,411
30 degrees C 1,377
35 degrees C 1,350

With electrolysis 2 water molecules H2O release the following gas quantity:

2H2O —> 2 H2 + O2

There is always double the amount of hydrogen gas compared to oxygen gas.
O2 can, however, at 25 degrees C dissolve 1,6 times better in water. So whereto with the clear surplus of H2?


The Hofmann Voltameter is one of the favourite school experiments of chemistry teachers and students. Thanks to its clever design the equation can be clearly demonstrated. In any case the Chemistry teacher has to “trick” in order to show that both gases are formed with the ratio 2:1. If the water is not saturated by both gases, then a ratio of 1:2,5 results with the different dissolving powers and the dissolving speed (oxygen to hydrogen).

At the end of the experiment we obtained pure oxygen and hydrogen for the beloved detonating gas effect, but also acidic water with saturated oxygen and alkaline water with saturated hydrogen, depending on air pressure and temperature.


So why does the ORP sink in alkaline, hydrogen rich water to very high negative values?

CSE-SHE WerteVergleich pH

One should keep in mind that ORP values are not measurable. The ORP is always the value of an electric current between two chemical reacting partners, so a relative size. H2 hydrogen gas is defined as a standard potential E0.

. As opposed to a hydrogen electrode (SHE), gold has, for example, an ORP of + 1680 mV, whereas lithium shows – 3040 mV. Due to the voltage difference one could make a lithium-gold battery with 4720 mV (4,72 Volts). A minus value means that an electron surplus is present, a positive value means a tendency to accept electrons.

The water molecule H2O is composed of two reacting partners, H2 and O. Oxygen (O) has a positive ORP with + 1230 mV compared to H2, so “greedy” for electrons. This voltage difference of 1230 mV is constant with all pH values and measuring methods, even if the values of both reacting partners with increasing pH values sink.

Alkaline activated water contains more hydrogen than oxygen. What is missing, very plainly put, are the +1230 mV: the ORP has to sink.

With drinkable alkaline activated water, with a pH 8,5 to 9,5, is the standard potential of H2 has sunk furthermore from 0 to ca. -450 to -550 mV. Therefore it has the low ORP values. Since many free OH- ions are available due to the alkaline character, it can reach the following electron releasing reaction:

2 H2 + 4 OH- ———> 4 H2O + 4 e-

This reaction creates water, full of energy: alkaline activated water.


So there are three basic parameters which define the value of alkaline activated water:

  • A maximum saturation with dissolved hydrogen
  • A higher surplus of OH- ions
  • A possibly complete removal of oxygen gas

These 3 basic parameters compliment each other. Their simultaneous availability is exclusively reached with an electrolytic water ionizer with diaphragm electrolysis. Neither chemical water ionizers or electrolysis devices without a diaphragm or Hydrogen Rich Water generators cannot reach the compliance of these parameters.


The first person, to my knowledge, who used the term “alkaline activated water” journalistically in Germany was Engineer Dietmar Ferger in his 2006 published book: “Alkaline Activated Water – how it works and what it can do.” The extended version of this book is also available in German, with the title: “Jungbrunnenwasser” (Fountain of youth water). The activity of water is better reflected, since it isn’t just a simple “alkaline water” with a high pH value. Dr. Walter Irlacher and I used this definition in our book “Service Handbuch Mensch” (Service Manual for Humans), which also first appeared in 2006.
In 2008, together with Ferger, we delved deeper into the topic with the book and documentary “Drink yourself alkaline – a guide to alkaline activated water”.

In 2008 the interest was dominated by an electrochemical measure and, which alkaline activated water, alongside its increased pH values, also possesses: The negative ORP. The Russian researcher Vitold Bakhir believes to have proven, that the ORP is abnormally low and not explainable with the classic ORP chemical equations. The ORP of the acidic activated water was also abnormally high and seemed to also be unexplainable. It was assumed what the main causes behind this unusual redox potential were for the effects of alkaline activated water (antioxidant) and acidic activated water (oxidative).

In 1997 Sanetaka Shirahata had hypothesised that only atomar hydrogen can be the cause for the antioxidative effect of water. He could establish such an effect with types of water, which didn’t have an abnormally negative ORP yet contained atomar hydrogen. Yet the research of Shigeo Ohta and many other researchers showed worldwide since 2008, that also the molecular hydrogen, the hydrogen gas in water, which causes the low ORP, causes the antioxidant effect. Since this, the research of hydrogen rich water is part of the highly promising new field in medicine. You get an overview under the key words “medical gas research” and in this FAQ book under the key words Hydrogen Rich Water.

With the new discoveries on how important H2 (hydrogen gas) is in alkaline activated water, it places the focus on the question as to how it should be stored and durability. If we were still in the times of the ORP debate, then one wouldn’t use metal containers for storing the water, so that the electrons don’t flow off. Nowadays metal containers, for example a double walled stainless steel bottle, is the first choice for storing alkaline activated water efficiently. Also with thick glass, (especially blue glass), do you prevent the loss of hydrogen and therefore the loss of the antioxidant effect. Whereas hydrogen flows out of plastic bottles very quickly, meaning the water relaxes faster and reduces the maximum use of the pure alkaline effect.

Why is hydrogen important in activated water and not oxygen in the OH- ions, like Sang Whang believed? Hydrogen is the fuel, oxygen the burner. We can supply ourselves with plenty of oxygen through the lungs. A supply of hydrogen is only possible with eating. Each ingestion serves us to gain H2, the source of energy, found at the end of each metabolic process. With alkaline activated water, this source of energy can be simply drunk.

With oxidation, hydrogen does not become a free radical after releasing the energy, instead it becomes water. Thus, hydrogen is not only the smallest antioxidant, but also the most elegant.


Excerpt from the book “Karl Heinz Asenbaum: Electrically activated water – An invention with extraordinary potential.
Copyright 2016